Sculpting ribs is challenging as they must be properly proportioned and evenly spaced. Here Shigeru shows how to build accurate ribs by using a volume guide made from a foam block.

Using the reference drawing, the overall shape of the ribcage is traced. 

This photo of a museum mount shows a discrepancy with the reference drawing as the posterior ribs are not recurved around the pelvis. It's unclear why Shigeru included this photo but museum reconstructions are not always the most accurate and Shigeru obviously sided with Greg Paul's arrangement.

Tracings made from the reference drawing are marked as a guide on a block of carving foam. 

Ribcage volume guide cut to shape.

The volume guide is fitted to the spine and final shaping of the block is done.

The position of each rib on the ribcage volume guide is marked in pen. Wire lengths are attached to the spine then shaped and cut to the dimensions of each rib.

The foam reference guide has been removed to show wires in position.

Ribs are bulked and shaped over the wires (using what looks like melted wax).

Completed ribs with scapula (shoulder blades).

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